Gene Sharp, a political scientist and founder of the Albert Einstein Institutions, a non-profit organization which studies and promotes the use of nonviolent action.
Sharp's best known book, The Politics of Nonviolent Action (1973), provides a pragmatic political analysis of nonviolent action as a metod for applying power in a conflict. He identifies 198 methods of action. http://www.aeinstein.org/organizations/org/198_methods.pdf
Passive Resistance, the refusal to follow a law while willingly accepting punishment for that refusal.
Civil Disobedience characterises the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands and commands of a government or of an occupying power without resorting to physical violence.
Henry David Thoreau pioneered the modern theory behind this practice in his 1849 essay titled "Resistance to Civil Government", later retitled "Civil Disobedience". The driving idea behind the essay was that of self-reliance and how one is in morally good standing as long as they "get off another man's back". You don't have to physically fight the government but you must not support it or have it support you if you are against it. Thoreau's refusal to pay his taxes was an act of protest against slavery and the Mexican War.
Hmm...I could spend the next four years trying to flesh this out!